How do different forms of relationships between NGOs and government assist with the provision of basic services in urban slum settings in the South Asian context?

The growing population of slum settings in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh have made it so that access to basic services is proving to be more and more challenging for the very poor. Currently in the development field, the partnership agenda is being pushed by a range of international and national policies, donor organisations and governments with the aim of drawing together different sectors to work together to provide basic services such as sanitation, health and education. A recent two-year research project funded by the UK Economic Social Research Council explored the dynamics of partnerships between NGOs and government in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan to provide the basic services of education, sanitation and health. The research explored nine in-depth case studies (three in each country with one case per sector). Of particular relevance to environmental education, three case studies are explained in detail:

- Orangi Pilot Project in Karachi, Pakistan providing community-led basic services in sanitation, education and health in the largest slum of Pakistan through continued local participatory learning and practice that has had enormous influence on government thinking and collaboration

- Shelter Associates in Pune, India providing sanitation access to slum dwellers in Pune and Sangli through the construction of community and individual toilet blocks, hygiene awareness and GIS mapping through strong local government support with the charisma and commitment of the leader

- Doorsteps Schools in Mumbai, India providing non-formal and formal education to children in slums through a local commitment to those in greatest need